Saint-Jerome Hspice Elements And Device Models Manual

HSPICE User Guide Basic Simulation and Analysis

Chapter 18 Finding Device Libraries Oregon State University

hspice elements and device models manual

SPICE DEVICE MODELS AND DESIGN SIMULATION EXAMPLES. 1/27/99 Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. Related Documents The following documents pertain to, ngspice - open source spice simulator. ngspice is the open source spice simulator for electric and electronic circuits. Such a circuit may comprise of JFETs, bipolar and MOS transistors, passive elements like R, L, or C, diodes, transmission lines and other devices, all interconnected in a netlist..

Hspice CML IO Kit User’s Manual

6.012 SPICE GUIDE - MIT. DATASHEET synopsys.com Overview HSPICE® is the industry’s “gold standard” for accurate circuit simulation and offers foundry-certified MOS device models with state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. With extensive usage in analog/RF/mixed-signal IC design, cell and, CSim, DelayMill, DesignPower, DesignWare, Device Model Builder, Enterprise, EPIC, Formality, HSPICE, HSPICE Quick Reference Guide, U-2003.03. HSPICE Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents Introduction 1 Input and Output Files 2 Behavior Macromodeling 6 Controlling Input 18 Analyzing Data 41 Optimizing Data 56 Output Format 59. Introduction 1 Introduction This Quick Reference Guide is a.

Star-Hspice Model Updates and Product Enhancements Star-Hspice and AvanWaves Release Notes 2. Star-Hspice Model Updates and Product Enhancements The following enhancements are released in Hspice version 2001.2. 2.1 New BSIM-SOI-DD Model Hspice now supports the UC Berkeley BSIM3DD2.2 for dynamically depleted (DD) SOI devices as MOSFET level 60. Star-Hspice User Guide, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual …

04/04/2018 · Hspice User's Manual Elements And Device Models ii HSPICE® User Guide: Basic Simulation and Analysis G-2012.06 TSMC Model Interface (TMI). This technology will enable the simulation of 3D integrated circuits and silicon interposer packages. New Models • FinFET BSIM-CMG 105.031, 105.04, 106.0 • BSIM6 • HiSIM-HV 2.0.0 • Mextram 504.10. Output Buffer Using IBIS Models 7-8 True-Hspice Device Models Reference Manual, Release 2001.4, revision A Figure 7-2 on page 7-7shows a single circuit specified on a single element card. V_out_of_in is a voltage source whose value is a function of V_in (as well as of thresholds Vinl, Vinh, and parameter Polarity). It can be used to drive other

;-) > > --Pat > > -----Original Message----- > From: Bob Patel [mailto:whizplayer@xxxxxxxxx] > Sent: Wednesday, May 29, 2002 6:24 PM > To: Patrick_Carrier@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx; Michael_Greim@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx; > si-list@xxxxxxxxxxxxx > Subject: RE: [SI-LIST] Re: Using W-element in HSPICE > > > Hi! PAtrick, Thanks for the reply. Michael did correct > the statements for the … Hspice User's Manual Elements And Device Models ii HSPICE® User Guide: Basic Simulation and Analysis G-2012.06 TSMC Model Interface (TMI). Direct X-Element Mapping to a MOSFET Model Card.

HSPICEВ® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models xi E-2010.12 About This Manual This manual describes standar d models that you can us e when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE or HSPICE RF: Passive devices Diodes JFET and MESFET devices BJT devices Inside This Manual This manual contains the chapters described below. For descriptions of the other manuals in the HSPICE The switch model allows an almost ideal switch to be described in SPICE. The switch is not quite ideal, in that the resistance can not change from 0 to infinity, but must always have a finite positive value. By proper selection of the on and off resistances, they can be effectively zero and infinity in comparison to other circuit elements. The

elements) a unique name and then connecting circuit elements between these nodes. Note that you do not have to specify these elements in any particular order (though it is often useful to specify them in an order that is logical to you). The last line of any HSPICE netlist must be the command .end. This tells HSPICE where to stop reading the HSPICE Applications Manual Provides application examples and additional HSPICE user information. HSPICE Command Reference Provides reference information for HSPICE commands. HPSPICE Elements and Device Models Manual Describes standard models you can use when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE, including passive devices, diodes, JFET and MESFET devices, and BJT devices. HPSPICE …

Hspice CML IO Kit User’s Manual Simulation of Lattice SC and ORCA Product CML SERDES Interfaces OVERVIEW The Lattice HSpice IO Kit contains a collection of HSpice model files that allow SERDES serial data link simulation across a PCB module or backplane hardware system. The SERDES buffer models are extracted from product final design files and have been found to closely reflect real device APPENDIX B SPICE DEVICE MODELS AND DESIGN SIMULATION EXAMPLES USING PSPICE AND MULTISIM Introduction This appendix is concerned with the very important topic of using

Introduction. These release notes describe the changes to Star-Hspice and AvanWaves for the 2001.2 Release, which include: Device model additions and upgrades: New BSIM-SOI-DD Model, New Junction Cap Model, Mextram Level 504 Upgrade, BSIM-SOI-PD Model Upgrade, BSIM4 Model Upgrade, Philips MOS9 Model Upgrade, BSIM4 Noise Model, IBIS Model Enhancements The .MODEL statement is required to define whether or not the circuit designer want to deal with a p- or n-channel device. The syntax for the .MODEL statement is shown below: .MODEL mname NMOS Only the model name, mname, and the NMOS (or PMOS) are required. The MOSFET transistor element uses the follwing formats:

HSPICE® User Guide: Simulation and Analysis Version B-2008.09, September 2008 Star-Hspice User Guide, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual …

be reproduced, transmitted, or translated, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Synopsys, Inc., or as expressly provided by the license agreement. HSPICEВ® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models xi E-2010.12 About This Manual This manual describes standar d models that you can us e when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE or HSPICE RF: Passive devices Diodes JFET and MESFET devices BJT devices Inside This Manual This manual contains the chapters described below. For descriptions of the other manuals in the HSPICE

SPICE combined operating point solutions, transient analysis, and various small-signal analyses with the circuit elements and device models needed to successfully simulate many circuits. Analyses. SPICE2 includes these analyses: AC analysis (linear small-signal frequency domain analysis) DC analysis (nonlinear quiescent point calculation) HSPICE Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models Describes standard models to use when simulating circuit designs in HSPICE, including passive devices, diodes, JFET and MESFET devices, and BJT devices. HSPICE Reference Manual: MOSFET Models Describes standard MOSFET models to use when simulating circuit designs in HSPICE.

Star-Hspice User Guide, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual … Hspice Differential IO Kit User’s Manual Simulation of Lattice SC Product LVDS and other differential Interfaces OVERVIEW The Lattice HSpice IO Kit contains a collection of HSpice model files that allow LVDS and other differential data link simulation across a PCB module or backplane hardware system. Examples of other differential buffers that can be simulated with this model are

CIRCUIT ELEMENTS AND MODELS University of California. SPICE combined operating point solutions, transient analysis, and various small-signal analyses with the circuit elements and device models needed to successfully simulate many circuits. Analyses. SPICE2 includes these analyses: AC analysis (linear small-signal frequency domain analysis) DC analysis (nonlinear quiescent point calculation), Hspice is a device level circuit simulator. Hspice takes a spice file as input and produces output describing the requested simulation of the circuit. It can also produce output files to be used by the AWAVES post processor. For beginners, chapters under tutorials provide a step by step guide to using HSpice. For a quick reference of mastering.

6.012 SPICE GUIDE - MIT

hspice elements and device models manual

Is there a way to print model parameter using Hspice-D. 1/27/99 Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. Related Documents The following documents pertain to, The switch model allows an almost ideal switch to be described in SPICE. The switch is not quite ideal, in that the resistance can not change from 0 to infinity, but must always have a finite positive value. By proper selection of the on and off resistances, they can be effectively zero and infinity in comparison to other circuit elements. The.

[SI-LIST] Re Using W-element in HSPICE si-list - FreeLists

hspice elements and device models manual

Is there a way to print model parameter using Hspice-D. Star-Hspice Manual, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual is Organized 1/27/99 Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. Related Documents The following documents pertain to.

hspice elements and device models manual

  • Device Models Synopsys
  • SPICE Models for Altera Devices

  • Platforms And High Speed Mixed Signal Devices Pupil. Manual Models 380500 Seselsec. Of The School 2001 Honda Service Manual Trx500fa. For 2013 Wildcat Policy And Procedure Manual For Hospice. Manual Chevy Cobalt Repair Guide High School Chemistry Study Guide Solution Manual Sadiku Elements. Some homework problems will require that you use device models provided in the 6.012 locker. Copy these files to your working directory: athena% cp ~6.012/hspice/models/* . Now open a file for editing using your favorite editor. This will be the file that SPICE …

    CSim, DelayMill, DesignPower, DesignWare, Device Model Builder, Enterprise, EPIC, Formality, HSPICE, HSPICE Quick Reference Guide, U-2003.03. HSPICE Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents Introduction 1 Input and Output Files 2 Behavior Macromodeling 6 Controlling Input 18 Analyzing Data 41 Optimizing Data 56 Output Format 59. Introduction 1 Introduction This Quick Reference Guide is a Hspice Differential IO Kit User’s Manual Simulation of Lattice SC Product LVDS and other differential Interfaces OVERVIEW The Lattice HSpice IO Kit contains a collection of HSpice model files that allow LVDS and other differential data link simulation across a PCB module or backplane hardware system. Examples of other differential buffers that can be simulated with this model are

    Star-Hspice User Guide, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual … The switch model allows an almost ideal switch to be described in SPICE. The switch is not quite ideal, in that the resistance can not change from 0 to infinity, but must always have a finite positive value. By proper selection of the on and off resistances, they can be effectively zero and infinity in comparison to other circuit elements. The

    HSPICEВ® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models xi E-2010.12 About This Manual This manual describes standar d models that you can us e when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE or HSPICE RF: Passive devices Diodes JFET and MESFET devices BJT devices Inside This Manual This manual contains the chapters described below. For descriptions of the other manuals in the HSPICE ngspice - open source spice simulator. ngspice is the open source spice simulator for electric and electronic circuits. Such a circuit may comprise of JFETs, bipolar and MOS transistors, passive elements like R, L, or C, diodes, transmission lines and other devices, all interconnected in a netlist.

    HSPICEВ® Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models xi E-2010.12 About This Manual This manual describes standar d models that you can us e when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE or HSPICE RF: Passive devices Diodes JFET and MESFET devices BJT devices Inside This Manual This manual contains the chapters described below. For descriptions of the other manuals in the HSPICE Hspice User's Manual Elements And Device Models ii HSPICEВ® User Guide: Basic Simulation and Analysis G-2012.06 TSMC Model Interface (TMI). Direct X-Element Mapping to a MOSFET Model Card.

    CSim, DelayMill, DesignPower, DesignWare, Device Model Builder, Enterprise, EPIC, Formality, HSPICE, HSPICE Quick Reference Guide, U-2003.03. HSPICE Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents Introduction 1 Input and Output Files 2 Behavior Macromodeling 6 Controlling Input 18 Analyzing Data 41 Optimizing Data 56 Output Format 59. Introduction 1 Introduction This Quick Reference Guide is a CSim, DelayMill, DesignPower, DesignWare, Device Model Builder, Enterprise, EPIC, Formality, HSPICE, HSPICE Quick Reference Guide, U-2003.03. HSPICE Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents Introduction 1 Input and Output Files 2 Behavior Macromodeling 6 Controlling Input 18 Analyzing Data 41 Optimizing Data 56 Output Format 59. Introduction 1 Introduction This Quick Reference Guide is a

    hspice elements and device models manual

    Other essential elements of successful program imple- mentation. Performance Scale as well as injury severity scores and injury patterns in the elderly. Models of proactive palliative care assessment and intervention in the emergency. Ventricular assist device (VAD) patients at the end of life as it. Introduction. These release notes describe the changes to Star-Hspice and AvanWaves for the 2001.2 Release, which include: Device model additions and upgrades: New BSIM-SOI-DD Model, New Junction Cap Model, Mextram Level 504 Upgrade, BSIM-SOI-PD Model Upgrade, BSIM4 Model Upgrade, Philips MOS9 Model Upgrade, BSIM4 Noise Model, IBIS Model Enhancements

    Hspice Elements And Device Models Manual linoacash

    hspice elements and device models manual

    HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide dartec.com. be reproduced, transmitted, or translated, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Synopsys, Inc., or as expressly provided by the license agreement., ngspice - open source spice simulator. ngspice is the open source spice simulator for electric and electronic circuits. Such a circuit may comprise of JFETs, bipolar and MOS transistors, passive elements like R, L, or C, diodes, transmission lines and other devices, all interconnected in a netlist..

    Chapter 18 Finding Device Libraries Oregon State University

    Chapter 18 Finding Device Libraries Oregon State University. Device modeling is an important aspect of HSPICE being the gold standard in circuit simulation. Over the years, HSPICE has consistently enjoyed the reputation of leading-edge modeling technology that ensures the most advanced and accurate set of industry-standard device-model implementations as the industry’s reference., Other essential elements of successful program imple- mentation. Performance Scale as well as injury severity scores and injury patterns in the elderly. Models of proactive palliative care assessment and intervention in the emergency. Ventricular assist device (VAD) patients at the end of life as it..

    Star-Hspice Manual, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual is Organized Star-Hspice Model Updates and Product Enhancements Star-Hspice and AvanWaves Release Notes 2. Star-Hspice Model Updates and Product Enhancements The following enhancements are released in Hspice version 2001.2. 2.1 New BSIM-SOI-DD Model Hspice now supports the UC Berkeley BSIM3DD2.2 for dynamically depleted (DD) SOI devices as MOSFET level 60.

    BJT Models Using the BJT Element Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.2 14-7 BJT Equivalent Circuits HSPICE uses four equivalent circuits in the analysis of BJTs: DC, transient, AC, and AC noise circuits. The components of these circuits form the basis for all element and model equations. Since these circuits represent the entire BJT in Hspice Differential IO Kit User’s Manual Simulation of Lattice SC Product LVDS and other differential Interfaces OVERVIEW The Lattice HSpice IO Kit contains a collection of HSpice model files that allow LVDS and other differential data link simulation across a PCB module or backplane hardware system. Examples of other differential buffers that can be simulated with this model are

    Vector names are the same as in nutmeg, with this addition: a name such as @name[param], where name is either the name of a device instance or model, denotes the value of the param parameter of the device or model. See the SPICE3 User's Manual for details of what parameters are available. The value is a vector of length 1. This function is also HSPICEВ® User Guide: Basic Simulation and Analysis Version J-2014.09, September 2014

    CSim, DelayMill, DesignPower, DesignWare, Device Model Builder, Enterprise, EPIC, Formality, HSPICE, HSPICE Quick Reference Guide, U-2003.03. HSPICE Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents Introduction 1 Input and Output Files 2 Behavior Macromodeling 6 Controlling Input 18 Analyzing Data 41 Optimizing Data 56 Output Format 59. Introduction 1 Introduction This Quick Reference Guide is a Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.2 18-1 Chapter 18 Finding Device Libraries For libraries with multiple models of a given element, you need to be able to automatically find the proper model for each transistor size. Use the Star-Hspice automatic model selector to accomplish this.

    HSPICE Applications Manual Provides application examples and additional HSPICE user information. HSPICE Command Reference Provides reference information for HSPICE commands. HPSPICE Elements and Device Models Manual Describes standard models you can use when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE, Manual HSPICE. The .MODEL statement is required to define whether or not the circuit designer want to deal with a p- or n-channel device. The syntax for the .MODEL statement is shown below: .MODEL mname NMOS Only the model name, mname, and the NMOS (or PMOS) are required. The MOSFET transistor element uses the follwing formats:

    Hspice CML IO Kit User’s Manual Simulation of Lattice SC and ORCA Product CML SERDES Interfaces OVERVIEW The Lattice HSpice IO Kit contains a collection of HSpice model files that allow SERDES serial data link simulation across a PCB module or backplane hardware system. The SERDES buffer models are extracted from product final design files and have been found to closely reflect real device BJT Models Using the BJT Element Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.2 14-7 BJT Equivalent Circuits HSPICE uses four equivalent circuits in the analysis of BJTs: DC, transient, AC, and AC noise circuits. The components of these circuits form the basis for all element and model equations. Since these circuits represent the entire BJT in

    HSPICE Applications Manual Provides application examples and additional HSPICE user information. HSPICE Command Reference Provides reference information for HSPICE commands. HPSPICE Elements and Device Models Manual Describes standard models you can use when simulating your circuit designs in HSPICE, including passive devices, diodes, JFET and MESFET devices, and BJT devices. HPSPICE … Vector names are the same as in nutmeg, with this addition: a name such as @name[param], where name is either the name of a device instance or model, denotes the value of the param parameter of the device or model. See the SPICE3 User's Manual for details of what parameters are available. The value is a vector of length 1. This function is also

    Star-Hspice and AvanWaves SCUDC 'Helpme'. The switch model allows an almost ideal switch to be described in SPICE. The switch is not quite ideal, in that the resistance can not change from 0 to infinity, but must always have a finite positive value. By proper selection of the on and off resistances, they can be effectively zero and infinity in comparison to other circuit elements. The, ;-) > > --Pat > > -----Original Message----- > From: Bob Patel [mailto:whizplayer@xxxxxxxxx] > Sent: Wednesday, May 29, 2002 6:24 PM > To: Patrick_Carrier@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx; Michael_Greim@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx; > si-list@xxxxxxxxxxxxx > Subject: RE: [SI-LIST] Re: Using W-element in HSPICE > > > Hi! PAtrick, Thanks for the reply. Michael did correct > the statements for the ….

    Star-Hspice User Guide NCU

    hspice elements and device models manual

    Is there a way to print model parameter using Hspice-D. HSPICE Reference Manual: Elements and Device Models Describes standard models to use when simulating circuit designs in HSPICE, including passive devices, diodes, JFET and MESFET devices, and BJT devices. HSPICE Reference Manual: MOSFET Models Describes standard MOSFET models to use when simulating circuit designs in HSPICE., Hspice is a device level circuit simulator. Hspice takes a spice file as input and produces output describing the requested simulation of the circuit. It can also produce output files to be used by the AWAVES post processor. For beginners, chapters under tutorials provide a step by step guide to using HSpice. For a quick reference of mastering.

    SPICE DEVICE MODELS AND DESIGN SIMULATION EXAMPLES. ngspice - open source spice simulator. ngspice is the open source spice simulator for electric and electronic circuits. Such a circuit may comprise of JFETs, bipolar and MOS transistors, passive elements like R, L, or C, diodes, transmission lines and other devices, all interconnected in a netlist., HSPICEВ® User Guide: Basic Simulation and Analysis Version J-2014.09, September 2014.

    SPICE Wikipedia

    hspice elements and device models manual

    Hospice Elements And Device Models Manual Arts vegaloprofit. be reproduced, transmitted, or translated, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Synopsys, Inc., or as expressly provided by the license agreement. Device modeling is an important aspect of HSPICE being the gold standard in circuit simulation. Over the years, HSPICE has consistently enjoyed the reputation of leading-edge modeling technology that ensures the most advanced and accurate set of industry-standard device-model implementations as the industry’s reference..

    hspice elements and device models manual


    HSPICEВ® Simulation and Analysis User Guide Version Y-2006.03, March 2006 HSPICEВ® User Guide: Simulation and Analysis Version B-2008.09, September 2008

    Platforms And High Speed Mixed Signal Devices Pupil. Manual Models 380500 Seselsec. Of The School 2001 Honda Service Manual Trx500fa. For 2013 Wildcat Policy And Procedure Manual For Hospice. Manual Chevy Cobalt Repair Guide High School Chemistry Study Guide Solution Manual Sadiku Elements. Models & simulators Analog simulation programs with TINA-TIв„ў software and SPICE, and the PCB thermal calculator We make it easy to simulate your design and format the results with our free simulation tools, such as TINA-TI and our PCB thermal calculator.

    Some homework problems will require that you use device models provided in the 6.012 locker. Copy these files to your working directory: athena% cp ~6.012/hspice/models/* . Now open a file for editing using your favorite editor. This will be the file that SPICE … Device modeling is an important aspect of HSPICE being the gold standard in circuit simulation. Over the years, HSPICE has consistently enjoyed the reputation of leading-edge modeling technology that ensures the most advanced and accurate set of industry-standard device-model implementations as the industry’s reference.

    Output Buffer Using IBIS Models 7-8 True-Hspice Device Models Reference Manual, Release 2001.4, revision A Figure 7-2 on page 7-7shows a single circuit specified on a single element card. V_out_of_in is a voltage source whose value is a function of V_in (as well as of thresholds Vinl, Vinh, and parameter Polarity). It can be used to drive other Star-Hspice User Guide, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual …

    Star-Hspice Manual, Release 1998.2 18-1 Chapter 18 Finding Device Libraries For libraries with multiple models of a given element, you need to be able to automatically find the proper model for each transistor size. Use the Star-Hspice automatic model selector to accomplish this. be reproduced, transmitted, or translated, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Synopsys, Inc., or as expressly provided by the license agreement.

    hspice elements and device models manual

    Star-Hspice Manual, Release 2001.4 iii Using This Manual This manual describes the Star-Hspice circuit and device simulation software and how to use it. Audience This manual is intended for design engineers who use Star-Hspice to develop, test, analyze, and modify circuit designs. How this Manual is Organized Other essential elements of successful program imple- mentation. Performance Scale as well as injury severity scores and injury patterns in the elderly. Models of proactive palliative care assessment and intervention in the emergency. Ventricular assist device (VAD) patients at the end of life as it.

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